The most common vaccinations include:
1. Cholera vaccination
Although this vaccine isn’t routinely needed, but it is recommended for air workers and people likely to have limited access to medical services – people working in refugee camps. Most of cholera cases were noted in regions with poor sanitation and water hygiene, including parts of:
The vaccine is usually given as a drink in 2 separate doses, taken 1 to 6 weeks apart with the 2nd dose taken at least a week before you travel.
2. Hepatitis A vaccination
Hepatitis A is recommended if you are travelling to countries with poor sanitation and hygiene.
These places include:
The vaccination against hepatitis A is usually given as a single initial injection, two weeks before you leave, with a second dose 6 to 12 months later. Two doses should protect you for at least 20 years.
3. Hepatitis B vaccination
Speak to us about having this medication if you are traveling to countries where Hepatitis B is common, including:
You will need three injections. We advise you to start the injections 6 months before you travel. However, it is possible to have them over the course of three weeks before you travel. You may also be advised to combine this vaccine with Hepatitis A.
4. Japanese Encephalitis vaccination
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a viral infection of the brain transmitted to humans by mosquitoes in parts of Asia and the Pacific Rim. Vaccination against Japanese encephalitis is usually recommended if you're planning a long stay (longer than a month) in a country where you could get the condition.
Consider having this vaccine if:
you're visiting country with a tropical climate
you're going to visit rural areas, such as rice fields or marshlands
you are planning on taking part in any activities such as cycling or camping
Vaccination against Japanese encephalitis usually consists of 2 injections, with the second dose given 28 days after the first.
5. Rabies Vaccinations
Rabies are usually transmitted to humans by a bike or a scratch from an infected animals, usually a dog. It is recommended to get this vaccination, if you are travelling to a country with many rabies cases, you are planning to stay there for a month or longer and you are unlikely to have access to medical care.
Rabies can be found in many parts of the world. GOV.UK provides a detailed list of countries that have rabies in domestic animals or wildlife. The list can be found here.
Vaccination involves a course of 3 injections before you travel, usually given over a period of 28 days.
6. Typhoid vaccine
Typhoid infection is acquired by the ingestion of food or water contaminated by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi or Salmonella Paratyphi.
High-risk areas include:
the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, Pakistan, India)
parts of south and southeast Asia
parts of South and Central America
parts of the Middle East
Ideally, the typhoid vaccine should be given at least 1 month before you travel, but it can be given closer to your travel date if necessary. If you are regular traveller, you should get a booster vaccination every 3 years.